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2.2.3. Engagement and
Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivation

Links to: Ideas; My Dissertation; Abstract; Table of contents; Lists; References; Bibliography; Appendices; Interviews; Coding; Memos; Notes; Categories; Chapter One; Chapter Two; Chapter Three; Chapter Four; Chapter Five; Chapter Six

From Literature Review for Proposal

A study presents a system applied in Denmark, whereby services offered by academic libraries may be linked to systems measuring and managing researchers’ performance, which could lead to “crowding out” Kaarsted (2017 p. 79), i.e. decreased motivation and performance. In a thorough analysis of various situations, the author depicts terminology from ‘motivation crowding theory’, ‘self-determination theory’, ‘prosocial motivation’, ‘principal agent motivation’, ‘motivation crowding theory’, each with abundant jargon and referencing to their original authors. Interaction patterns between researchers and libraries are also depicted and relevant courses of action suggested.

Another study on motivations in self-archiving in the UK, touches on issues of “universities’ commitment to IRs” (Kim 2011 p. 246), trustworthiness, confusion, professional recognition, rank, altruism, improper use of work, self-protection, accessibility and others, but does not mention any particular theories.

A book chapter on the theory of ‘positive organisational scholarship’ stresses vocabulary on enablers, i.e. structures, capabilities, methods; motivations, i.e. altruistic; outcomes, in this case meaningfulness, vitality and so on. Some interesting concepts to note here are that of “nonlinear positive dynamics” or “positive spirals” (Cameron, Dutton and Quinn 2003 p. 4), “prosocial and citizenship behaviour” (Cameron, Dutton and Quinn 2003 p. 9), the latter meaning behaviours specifically intended to help or benefit others.

Workplace concerns and manifestations thereof have been synthesised into a theory called the “Grumble Theory” (Crumpton 2016 p. 51), based on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. This study nimbly works out the relationship between voiced ‘grumbles’ and opportunities for organisations to work with and around the respective individual needs.

Needs and Motivation

Stemming from Maslow's triad of needs (physiological, psychological and social) as the three wells of perceptions/feelings of either deficiency or fulfillment, it has been demonstrated and it is still often assumed that it is the feelings that drive the individuals to channel their energies into certain behaviours aimed at satisfying the perceived imbalances, or at least reduce inner tensions with regard to the respective needs.

The compass for the direction of such energies through specific behavioural manifestations is the individual's mixture of motives.

It is the combination of these individual motives imported into an organisation by employment, and the organisation's expectations (based on missions and goals) and its socially approved courses of action (based on culture) that will ultimately effect a determined niche for the said behavioural manifestations.

It is at the confluence of these two forces where the alchemy happens and the outcome is influenced by a multitude of factors. For the purpose of this study, only the aspects emerging from the field will be considered, aligned with the principles of validity and relevance of qualitative research.

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